Wednesday, May 15, 2013

Howard Gardner & Robert Sternberg's Intelligence Theories

        Psychologists Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg have similar theories of intelligence. Gardner's approach suggests that humans have a variety of different intelligences. Gardner's definition of intelligence stresses the part of intelligence that permits us to thrive in our inner communities. In other words, intelligence is different to each person according to their environment. Another aspect of Gander's theory of intelligence states that different communities force different things on our intelligence. Gardner's theory of intelligence is called, multiple intelligences. The multiple intelligences theory consists of nine different types of intelligences. The nine are; linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential. Robert Sternberg's analysis of intelligence is similar to Gardner's because they both reject trying to account for a single generic type of intelligence. Though they agree that it is not useful to measure one type of intelligence Sternberg does not believe that we posses multiple types of intelligence. Sternberg's theory of triarchic theory of intelligence consists of three types of intelligence. Analytical, practical, and creative intelligence makes up Sternberg's theory. These types of intelligence are called successful intelligences. Although both Sternberg and Gardner have similar theories of intelligence, they tend to take differ in the total amount of intelligences that one possess.

     Re:
    I see generalized intelligence, Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory and Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences as pieces to the whole puzzle, or like transitions from macro to micro. For example, generalized intelligence is a universal concept, triarchic theory is different parts of it and multiple intelligences is a further division. I can relate to all three because I find some intelligences common to almost everyone around the world but when you go through phases of culture shock you see how different the value of several different types of intelligences can be and the great variety depending on environment. I wonder if any theory has been presented that incorporates all three in this way.

     Re:
    Or maybe all of these theories could be laid out in a spider graph to see how they relate to one another.

     Re:
     These are very good points and questions you bring up regarding how to view intelligence. Psychology today really is more of a blend of theories rather than a strict adherence to one theory. However, the concept of intelligence in the lay population and especially with I.Q. is often misguided and misinformed. Therefore it is unfortunately viewed as a aspect that is singular to the self rather than a complex theoretical perspective.

     Re:
    This is very well summarized and contrasted between the two theories. However, you did not informally cite your resources nor did you incorporate any of the videos into your prompt. Could you find examples of each of these perspectives in the videos?

     Re:
    Sorry, All of the information was taken out of the textbook. Yes i found examples of the different perspectives as well as others that were not mentioned in the textbook.

     Re:
    I feel that Gardner and Sternberg's theories on intelligences are different in their viewpoints towards different intelligences. Gardner seems to categorize based on different aspects of knowledge and skills, differentiating the intelligence one has due to their musical ability vs. their ability at sports (bodily-kinesthetic). Sternberg's theory seems to specifically consider intelligence not on one's skills but instead their ability to deal with situations and their environment. This seems to be more of a traditional viewpoint on intelligence, considering the cognitive ability of an individual.